Columbia University Medical Center
NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital The University Hospital of Columbia and Cornell
December 2, 2009

Professor Paul Appelbaum and Associate Professor Robert Klitzman of Columbia University, along with University of Massachusetts Professor Charles Lidz, assessed people's motivations to participate in research studies. The researchers said their goal was to identify any constraints participants believed limited their capacity to make a choice about participation.

The professors said they developed a 14-item questionnaire to evaluate what they called "voluntariness" and any constraints on voluntariness. They recruited 88 patients who were participants in five areas of clinical research: substance abuse, cancer, human immunodeficiency virus, cardiology and depression.

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